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Rebuilding marine life

Año: 2020
Categoría: Biodiversidad, Conservación, Océanos

Título publicación

Rebuilding marine life

Autores: Carlos M. Duarte, Susana Agusti, Edward Barbier, Gregory L. Britten, Juan Carlos Castilla, Juan-Pierre Gattuso, Robinson W. Fulweiler. Terry P. Hughes, Nancy Knowlton, Catherine E. Lovelock, Heike K. Ltze, Milica Predragovic, Elvira Poloczanska, Callum Roberts & Boris Worn.

Revista: Nature 580, 39-51 (2020)

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Abstract

Sustainable Development Goal 14 of the United Nations aims to “conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”. Achieving this goal will require rebuilding the marine life-support systems that deliver the many benefits that society receives from a healthy ocean.

A stress test for climate change impacts on water security: A CRIDA case study

Año: 2020
Categoría: Cambio climático, Gestión adaptativa recursos hídricos, Recursos hídricos

Título publicación

A stress test for climate change impacts on water security: A CRIDA case study

Autores: K.M.J. Verbist, H. Maureira-Cortés, P. Rojas, S. Vicuña

Revista: Climate Risk Management (28) 2020, 100222

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Abstract

Since the impacts of climate change will be felt most directly through changes in water availability and water security, adequate tools are required to support water resources management decisions for the medium and long term. The Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) provides a pathway for more localized vulnerability assessments of water resources under climate change, while encompassing the uncertainty of current global climate projections.

Water at COP25: Resilience enables climate change adaptation through better planning, governance and finance

Año: 2020
Categoría: Adaptación, Cambio climático, Recursos hídricos

Título publicación

Water at COP25: Resilience enables climate change adaptation through better planning, governance and finance

Autores: Julien J. Harou John H. Matthews D. Mark Smith Rachael A. McDonnell Edoardo Borgomeo Jennifer J. Sara Judith Plummer Braeckman Nathanial Matthews James Dalton Mike D. Young Henk W. J. Ovink Musonda Mumba Martin Shouler Sanna Markkanen y Sebastian Vicuña

Revista: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Water Management 173(2): 55–58

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Abstract

The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992 and governments have participated since then in its decision-making body, the ‘Conference of the Parties' (COP). Chile presided over the 25th annual COP held December 2019 in Madrid, Spain. While COPs necessarily emphasise energy negotiations and carbon mitigation policies, water is an increasingly prominent topic because of the need for water in energy production and its importance in nature-based and engineered adaptation and mitigation solutions. Climate-change-induced water impacts are key considerations in, for example, infrastructure planning under changing flood and drought risk, changing agricultural practices and hydropower. Already ninety percent of all-natural disasters are water related.

Impacts of Channel Network Type on the Unit Hydrograph

Año: 2020
Categoría: Hidrología, Modelación hidrológica

Título publicación

Impacts of Channel Network Type on the Unit Hydrograph

Autores: Kalsey Czyzyk, Dario Mirossi, Almoatasem Abdoulhak, Sediqa Hassani, Jeffrey Niemann, Jorge Gironás

Revista: Water 2020, 12(3), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030669

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Abstract

Unit hydrographs (UHs) remain widely used in hydrologic modeling to predict the stormflow that is produced at a basin outlet in response to runoff generated throughout the basin. Numerous studies have demonstrated that a basin’s UH depends on its geomorphic properties, and several methods estimate synthetic UHs using such properties. However, previous studies have not examined whether the channel network type (such as dendritic, parallel, pinnate, rectangular, and trellis) impacts the UH shape. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether those five network types exhibit distinct UHs, and (2) whether knowledge of the network type is sufficient to replace the actual flow path structure in UH estimation.

Drought impacts on water quality and potential implications for agricultural production in the Maipo River Basin, Central Chile

Año: 2020
Categoría: Agricultura, Cuenca del Maipo, Sequía

Título publicación

Drought impacts on water quality and potential implications for agricultural production in the Maipo River Basin, Central Chile

Autores: M.D. Peña-Guerrero, A. Nauditt, C. Muñoz-Robles, L. Ribbe, F. Meza

Revista: Hydrological Sciences Journal, DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2020.1711911

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Abstract

Droughts can have serious negative impacts on the water quality needed for irrigated agriculture. The Metropolitan region of Chile is a relevant producer of high-value crops and is prone to droughts. Standardized Drought Indices were used to characterize meteorological and hydrological droughts for the period from 1985 to 2015.

Perception of thermal comfort in outdoor public spaces in the medium-sized city of Chillán, Chile, during a warm summer.

Año: 2019
Categoría: Cambio climático, Crecimiento urbano, Estimación Temperatura

Título publicación

Perception of thermal comfort in outdoor public spaces in the medium-sized city of Chillán, Chile, during a warm summer.

Autores: P. Smith, C. Henríquez.

 

Libro: Perception of thermal comfort in outdoor public spaces in the medium-sized city of Chillán, Chile, during a warm summer.

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Abstract

The study of thermal comfort in Latin American cities has been gaining great relevance for urban environmental planning. Some studies have evaluated the relationship between environmental and perceived comfort; however, the causes and social determinants of the different perceptions of the population have not been explored. The perception of thermal comfort in public spaces in the city of Chillán (Chile), which has an inland Mediterranean climate, is discussed in this context. First, we measured the environmental thermal comfort, adapting the Actual Sensation Vote index.

Navigating transformation in climate and biodiversity.

Año: 2019
Categoría: Biodiversidad

Título publicación

Navigating transformation in climate and biodiversity.

Autores: P.A. Marquet, S. Naeem, J.B.C. Jackson, K. Hodges.

 

Libro: Navigating transformation in climate and biodiversity.

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Abstract

This planet is the home of life, born into existence and transformed over 3.8 billion years into a continuous tapestry, covering all possible places from the deep ocean floors to mountain summits. Ours is a bioclimatic world in which every organism, from bacterium to blue whale, inseparably contributes to the climate and surface conditions of Earth. This tapestry, of which we are a part, is unraveling, with its delicate patterns and motifs denigrated to near invisibility, disappearing at a rate and magnitude that rivals that of the great mass extinction events of the past (). This fading to nonexistence is making us unfortunate witnesses to the accumulated consequences of human actions over the past 10,000 years. Happily, though, we are now increasingly empowered by science and can act to abate ongoing trends and protect planetary resources before the essential threads of life’s coherence become completely eroded.

The commonness of rarity: global and future distribution of rarity across land plants.

Año: 2019
Categoría: Biodiversidad

Título publicación

The commonness of rarity: global and future distribution of rarity across land plants.

Autores: B.J. Enquist, X. Feng, B. Boyle, B. Maitner, E.A Newman, P.M. Jørgensen, P.R. Roehrdanz, B.M. Thiers, J.R. Burger, R.T Corlett, T.L.P. Couvreur, G.Dauby, J.C. Donoghue, W. Foden, J.C Lovett, P. A Marquet, C. Merow, G. Midgley, N. Morueta-Holme, D.M. Neves, A.T. Oliveira-Filho, N.J.B. Kraft, D.S Park, R.K Peet, M. Pillet, J.M. Serra-Diaz, B. Sandel, M. Schildhauer, I. Šímová, C. Violle, J.J Wieringa, S.K Wiser, L.Hannah, J.-C. Svenning, B. J. McGill.

 

Libro: The commonness of rarity: Global and future distribution of rarity across land plants.

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Abstract

A key feature of life’s diversity is that some species are common but many more are rare. Nonetheless, at global scales, we do not know what fraction of biodiversity consists of rare species. Here, we present the largest compilation of global plant diversity to quantify the fraction of Earth’s plant biodiversity that are rare. A large fraction, ~36.5% of Earth’s ~435,000 plant species, are exceedingly rare. Sampling biases and prominent models, such as neutral theory and the k-niche model, cannot account for the observed prevalence of rarity.

Libro - Global Changes: Ethics, Politics and Environment in the Contemporary Technological World

Año: 2020
Categoría: Cambio climático, Cambio global, Conciencia pública, Globalización, Política pública

Título publicación

Libro - Global Changes: Ethics, Politics and Environment in the Contemporary Technological World

Autores: Luca Varela, Juan Carlos Castilla

Editorial: Springer (Parte de la serie de libros "Ethics of Science and Technology Assessment")

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Sobre el libro

This book offers an authoritative analysis of the challenges that have arisen as a result of modern technologies. It covers several environmental problems, such as climate change, overexploitation of natural resources, loss of natural habitats, pollution and human population growth, and discusses practical scenarios for sustainable human dwelling of our planet. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the first part introduces “global changes”, describing how they are happening in reality, and the challenges arising from them. The second part introduces methodological approaches borrowed from various disciplines, such as engineering, management science, philosophy and theology, which can help deal with the contemporary challenges resulting from global changes.

Modeling present and future ice covers in two Antarctic lakes

Año: 2019
Categoría: Hidrología, Impactos del cambio climático, Modelación hidrológica

Título publicación

Modeling present and future ice covers in two Antarctic lakes

Autores: Sebastián Echeverría, Mark B. Hausner, Nicolás Bambach, Sebastián Vicuña y Francisco Suárez

Revista: Journal of Glaciology Journal of Glaciology (2019) 1–14  - https://doi.org/10.1017/jog.2019.78

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Abstract

Antarctic lakes with perennial ice covers provide the opportunity to investigate in-lake processes without direct atmospheric interaction, and to study their ice-cover sensitivity to climate conditions. In this study, a numerical model – driven by radiative, atmospheric and turbulent heat fluxes from the water body beneath the ice cover – was implemented to investigate the impact of climate change on the ice covers from two Antarctic lakes: west lobe of Lake Bonney (WLB) and Crooked Lake.