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Soil water content effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange and actual evapotranspiration in a Mediterranean semiarid savanna of Central Chile

Año: 2018
Categoría: Acacia cavens, Carbono, Evapotranspiración, Servicios ecosistémicos

Título publicación

Soil water content effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange and actual evapotranspiration in a Mediterranean semiarid savanna of Central Chile

Autores: Meza, F.J., Montes, C., Bravo-Martínez, F., Serrano-Ortiz, P., Kowalski, A.

Revista: Scientific Reports (2018) 8: 8570

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Abstract

Biosphere-atmosphere water and carbon fluxes depend on ecosystem structure, and their magnitudes and seasonal behavior are driven by environmental and biological factors. We studied the seasonal behavior of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Ecosystem Respiration (RE), and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) obtained by eddy covariance measurements during two years in a Mediterranean Acacia savanna ecosystem (Acacia caven) in Central Chile.

A rule-based approach for preventive identification of potential conflictive criteria in mining operations in Chile

Año: 2018
Categoría: Impactos, Planificación territorial, Sistemas socio-ecológicos, Vulnerabilidad

Título publicación

A rule-based approach for preventive identification of potential conflictive criteria in mining operations in Chile

Autores: Anahí Ocampo-Melgar, Jorge Gironás, Aida Valls

Revista: Journal of Cleaner Production (2018) 184:559-568

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Abstract

Mining projects, as with many other extractive activities, result in divergent opinions during the planning process which may trigger conflict. Early understanding of stakeholders’ priorities can help with the design of better projects while reducing sources of potential conflict. The objective of this article is to present a rule-based method for decision support to be used in the first stages of the project to identify disagreements in the form of potentially conflictive criteria. The method proposed defines four attributes that should be evaluated for the different relevant criteria subject to potential conflict: the importance of the criterion, the perceived risk, the fairness, and the affected side’s willingness to make dialogue.

Microclimate Metrics Linked to the Use and Perception of Public Spaces: The Case of Chillán City, Chile

Año: 2018
Categoría: Ciencias atmosféricas, Clima, Estimación Temperatura, Modelación térmica urbana

Título publicación

Microclimate Metrics Linked to the Use and Perception of Public Spaces: The Case of Chillán City, Chile

Autores:  Pamela Smith y Cristián Henríquez

Revista: Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 186

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Abstract

This paper presents research carried out in the city of Chillán, a medium size city located on the southern limit of the Chilean Mediterranean domain, at 36°36′s south latitude. Chillán provides a good representative example of warm summers in central and southern Chilean cities. Five public spaces were selected, representing different typologies and relating to different urban background conditions. Users in these public spaces were observed, counted and photographed five times a day (12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 h, local time) during a heat wave event in the summer of 2016, while meteorological parameters were measured at different points within the public space.

Sustainability Assessment in Development Planning in Sub-National Territories: Regional Development Strategies in Chile

Año: 2018
Categoría: Conciencia pública, Planificación territorial, Planificación urbana, Política pública

Título publicación

Sustainability Assessment in Development Planning in Sub-National Territories: Regional Development Strategies in Chile

Autores: Iván Franchi-Arzola, Javier Martin-Vide y Cristián Henríquez

Revista: Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1398

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Abstract

In Chile, the increasing occurrence of socio-environmental conflicts demonstrates that Regional Development Strategies—Estrategia Regional de Desarrollo (ERD)—as the main development policy of subnational territories (Regions), must consider sustainability as a central objective. The Taxonomy of Sustainability constitutes an assessment method that allows us to determine the correlation between the definitions of these public policies and the strategies for transition to sustainable development.

Water option contracts for climate change adaptation in Santiago, Chile

Año: 2018
Categoría: Agricultura, Crecimiento urbano, Cuenca del Maipo, Cuencas urbanas, Gestión adaptativa recursos hídricos, Recursos hídricos

Título publicación

Water option contracts for climate change adaptation in Santiago, Chile

Autores: Sebastián Vicuña, Marina Gil, Oscar Melo, Guillermo Donoso, Pablo Merino

Revista: Water International, 43:2, 237-256

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Abstract

Climate change–induced extreme events pose an important challenge for urban water managers. In Santiago (Chile), the total cost of such events can be reduced by an option contract that sets ex ante water prices and water volumes to be traded when certain triggering conditions are met. This article discusses two types of option contracts: water leasing to trade water from agriculture to urban uses during droughts; and a savings option contract to reduce urban water consumption during short-term turbidity events. We find that water option contracts are flexible instruments that improve the distribution of hydrological risks.

Urban climatic-environmental zoning through the integration of satellite remote sensing, geostatistical and GIS techniques

Año: 2018
Categoría: Crecimiento urbano, Imágenes de detección remota

Título publicación

Urban climatic-environmental zoning through the integration of satellite remote sensing, geostatistical and GIS techniques

Autores:  Cristián Henríquez, John Treimun y Jorge Qüense

Revista: En: Ley, J. y Mas, J. F.  (Coord.), Análisis geoespacial en los estudios urbanos. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Mexicali, Baja California y Morelia, Michoacán: 171-200. 

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Abstract

A fines de la década pasada, por primera vez el porcentaje de población urbana superó a la población rural, y se proyecta que llegará a un 66% de la población mundial el año 2050 (United Nations, 2014). En varios países de Latinoamérica la población urbana ya superó el 80%; en el caso de Chile desde la década de 1940 traspasó este umbral, estimándose que al año 2020 alcanzará el 87% de la población nacional (INE, 2004). Esta explosión demográfica urbana se intensificará en las grandes ciudades, aunque las evidencias demuestran que las ciudades de tamaño medio son las que crecerán a mayores tasas (Henríquez, 2014).

Improving Stochastic Modelling of Daily Rainfall using ENSO index: Model development and application in Chile

Año: 2018
Categoría: ENSO, Modelación climática, Precipitaciones, Predicción Climática

Título publicación

Improving Stochastic Modelling of Daily Rainfall using ENSO index: Model development and application in Chile

Autores: Urdiales, D., Meza, F., Gironás J and Gilabert, H.

Revista: Water  (2018) 10 (2) 145: 1-16.

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Abstract

Stochastic weather simulation, or weather generators (WGs), have gained a wide acceptance and been used for a variety of purposes, including climate change studies and the evaluation of climate variability and uncertainty effects. The two major challenges in WGs are improving the estimation of interannual variability and reducing overdispersion in the synthetic series of simulated weather. The objective of this work is to develop a WG model of daily rainfall, incorporating a covariable that accounts for interannual variability, and apply it in three climate regions (arid, Mediterranean, and temperate) of Chile.

Species co‐occurrence networks: Can they reveal trophic and non‐trophic interactions in ecological communities?

Año: 2018
Categoría: Sistemas socio-ecológicos, Medio Ambiente

Título publicación

Species co‐occurrence networks: Can they reveal trophic and non‐trophic interactions in ecological communities?

Autores: Mara A. Freilich, Evie Wieters, Bernardo R. Broitman, Pablo A. Marquet, Sergio A. Navarrete

Revista: Ecology (2018), 99(3), 690–699

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Abstract

Co‐occurrence methods are increasingly utilized in ecology to infer networks of species interactions where detailed knowledge based on empirical studies is difficult to obtain. Their use is particularly common, but not restricted to, microbial networks constructed from metagenomic analyses. In this study, we test the efficacy of this procedure by comparing an inferred network constructed using spatially intensive co‐occurrence data from the rocky intertidal zone in central Chile to a well‐resolved, empirically based, species interaction network from the same region. We evaluated the overlap in the information provided by each network and the extent to which there is a bias for co‐occurrence data to better detect known trophic or non‐trophic, positive or negative interactions.

Can environmental impact assessments alone conserve freshwater fish biota? Review of the Chilean experience

Año: 2017
Categoría: Biodiversidad, Impacto recursos hídricos

Título publicación

Can environmental impact assessments alone conserve freshwater fish biota? Review of the Chilean experience

Autores: Shaw Nozaki Lacy, Francisco J. Meza, Pablo A.Marquet

Revista: Environmental Impact Assessment Review 63 (2017) 87–94

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Abstract
 
Chile fue uno de los muchos países que inició evaluaciones de impacto ambiental en la década de 1990, y se ha basado en su uso para la conservación de especies y la planificación territorial sin el uso de una planificación ambiental y ecológica a mayor escala. Se evalúa la capacidad del sistema de evaluación de impacto ambiental (SEIA) de Chile para evaluar los peces residentes de agua dulce y los posibles impactos de los proyectos de agua y actividades acuícolas, dos categorías de proyectos que crean amenazas directas a los peces de agua dulce.

Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change

Año: 2017
Categoría: Adaptación, Mitigación

Título publicación

Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change

Autores: Callum M. Roberts, Bethan C. O’Leary, Douglas J. McCauley, Philippe Maurice Cury, Carlos M. Duarte, Jane Lubchenco, Daniel Pauly, Andrea Sáenz-Arroyo, Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Rod W. Wilson, Boris Worm and Juan Carlos Castilla

Revista: PNAS (2017). 114 (24) 6167-6175

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Abstract

Se requieren fuertes disminuciones en las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero para cumplir con la trayectoria de reducción resuelta dentro del Acuerdo de París 2015. Sin embargo, incluso estas disminuciones no evitarán el estrés y el daño a la vida en la Tierra, y se necesitan medidas adicionales para aumentar la resiliencia de los ecosistemas, salvaguardar su vida silvestre y proteger su capacidad para suministrar bienes y servicios vitales.

Noticias

Presentan Reporte que mide cumplimiento de promesas en materia ambiental 2018-2020

03-08-2020

De acuerdo al reporte de GAMA UC, de los 90 compromisos de gobierno en materia ambiental existentes hasta el 30 de Julio de 2020, 27 se consideran cumplidos, 46 en...

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