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Priority questions for biodiversity conservation in the Mediterranean biome: Heterogeneous perspectives across continents and stakeholders

Año: 2019
Categoría: Biodiversidad suelos, Conservación, Servicios ecosistémicos, Medio Ambiente

Título publicación

Priority questions for biodiversity conservation in the Mediterranean biome: Heterogeneous perspectives across continents and stakeholders

Autores: Francisco Moreira, Nicky Allsopp, Karen J. Esler, Grant Wardell-Johnson, Leonardo Ancilloto, Margarita Arianoutsou, Jeffrey Clary, Lluis Brotons, Miguel Clavero, Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos, Raquel Fagoaga, Peggy Fiedler, Ana F. Filipe, Eliezer Frankenberg, Milena Holmgren, Pablo A. Marquet, Maria J. Martinez-Harms, Adriano Martinoli, Ben P. Miller, Linda Olsvig-Whittaker, Patricio Pliscoff, Phil Rundel, Danilo Russo, Jasper A. Slingsby, John Thompson, Angela Wardell-Johnson, Pedro Beja.

Revista: Conservation Science and Practice (2019) e118. https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.118

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Abstract

The identification of research questions with high relevance for biodiversity conservation is an important step towards designing more effective policies and management actions, and to better allocate funding among alternative conservation options. However, the identification of priority questions may be influenced by regional differences in biodiversity threats and social contexts, and to variations in the perceptions and interests of different stakeholders. Here we describe the results of a prioritization exercise involving six types of stakeholders from the Mediterranean biome, which includes several biodiversity hotspots spread across five regions of the planet (Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Australia).

Using forest historical information to target landscape ecological restoration in Southwestern Patagonia

Año: 2019
Categoría: Biodiversidad suelos, Conservación, Planificación territorial, Servicios ecosistémicos

Título publicación

Using forest historical information to target landscape ecological restoration in Southwestern Patagonia

Autores: Gabriel Zegers, Eduardo Arellano, Lars Ostlund

Revista: Ambio (2019) 1-14

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Abstract

Ecotonal zones between eastern semi-arid steppes and Nothofagus spp. forests in western Patagonia are the result of broad ecosystem changes, which have intensified in the last 140 years. Our objectives were to determine historical changes in land use, land cover, and forces driving such changes in Nothofagus ecosystems in the Río Verde district in southern Chile, to support future management recommendations. This interdisciplinary study used historical records including scientific and military expeditions, Landsat imagery, and other archival sources.

Seasonal hydroclimatic ensemble forecasts anticipate nutrient and suspended sediment loads using a dynamical-statistical approach

Año: 2019
Categoría: Hidrología, Modelación hidrológica, Recursos hídricos

Título publicación

Seasonal hydroclimatic ensemble forecasts anticipate nutrient and suspended sediment loads using a dynamical-statistical approach

Autores: Sanjib Sharma, Heather Gall, Jorge Gironás, Alfonso Mejía

Revista: Environmental Research Letters (2019) 14(8) : 084016

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Abstract

Subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) water quantity and quality forecasts are needed to support decision and policy making in multiple sectors, e.g. hydropower, agriculture, water supply, and flood control. Traditionally, S2S climate forecasts for hydroclimatic variables (e.g. precipitation) have been characterized by low predictability. Since recent next-generation S2S climate forecasts are generated using improved capabilities (e.g. model physics, assimilation techniques, and spatial resolution), they have the potential to enhance hydroclimatic predictions.

Estimating the Local Time of Emergence of Climatic Variables Using an Unbiased Mapping of GCMs. An Application in Semiarid and Mediterranean Chile

Año: 2019
Categoría: Cambio climático, Clima, Downscaling, Modelación climática

Título publicación

Estimating the Local Time of Emergence of Climatic Variables Using an Unbiased Mapping of GCMs. An Application in Semiarid and Mediterranean Chile

Autores: Cristian Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, Francisco Meza

Revista: Journal of Hydrometeorology (2019), Aceptado.

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Abstract

The time at which climate change signal can be clearly distinguished from noise is known as Time of Emergence (ToE), and is typically detected by a General Circulation Model (GCM) signal-to-noise ratio exceeding a certain threshold. ToE is commonly estimated at large scales from GCMs, although management decisions and adaptation strategies are implemented locally.

Planform geometry and relief characterization of drainage networks in high-relief environments: An analysis of Chilean Andean basin

Año: 2019
Categoría: Hidrología, Modelación hidrológica

Título publicación

Planform geometry and relief characterization of drainage networks in high-relief environments: An analysis of Chilean Andean basin

Autores: Andrés Pereira-Claren, Jorge Gironás, Jeffrey Niemann, Paola Passalacqua, Alfonso Mejía, Cristián Escauriaza

Revista: Geomorphology (2019), 341: 46-64

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Abstract

Drainage network types give indications of the landscape evolution processes and the lithologic and structural conditions that produced them. Moreover, drainage network attributes affect the hydrologic response of basins. Several network types have been identified through visual inspection and, more recently, through quantitative methods developed and applied primarily on relatively low-relief regions.

On the Influence of Upstream Flow Contributions on the Basin Response Function for Hydrograph Prediction

Año: 2019
Categoría: Modelación hidrológica

Título publicación

On the Influence of Upstream Flow Contributions on the Basin Response Function for Hydrograph Prediction

Autores: Tomás Bunster, Jorge Gironás, Jeffrey Niemann

Revista: Water Resources Research (2019) 55(6)

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Abstract

Spatially distributed travel time (SDTT) methods have been developed as an alternative to semidistributed and fully distributed methods for rainfall‐runoff modeling. In these methods, the travel times of grid cells are summed along flow paths and then convoluted to generate the hydrograph at the outlet. One central aspect of SDTT models that remains partially addressed is the effect of upstream flow contributions and their dynamics on the calculated flood wave travel times.

Urban Climates in Latin America (Libro)

Año: 2019
Categoría: Cambio climático, Clima, Crecimiento urbano, Planificación urbana

Título publicación

Urban Climates in Latin America (Libro)

Editores: Cristián Henríquez, Hugo Romero

Editorial: Springer (DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-97013-4)

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Abstract

Este libro describe la observación de los climas urbanos en América Latina y sus relaciones con la expansión urbana, el surgimiento económico de los países latinoamericanos, la segregación social, la ecología urbana, los desastres y la resiliencia. Los capítulos incluyen contribuciones relacionadas con las islas de calor urbano, zonas climáticas locales, confort térmico, contaminación del aire, índice de clima extremo, infraestructura verde, problemas de salud y adaptaciones basadas en el contexto socioeconómico de las zonas urbanas. Este libro revisa el papel de la planificación urbana y la gobernanza ambiental, destacando las singularidades en las políticas de adaptación al clima en los países en desarrollo.

Impact of Urban Growth and High Residential Irrigation on Streamflow and Groundwater Levels in a Peri‐Urban Semiarid Catchment

Año: 2019
Categoría: Cuencas urbanas, Recursos hídricos

Título publicación

Impact of Urban Growth and High Residential Irrigation on Streamflow and Groundwater Levels in a Peri‐Urban Semiarid Catchment

Autores: Pedro Sanzana, Jorge Gironás, Isabelle Braud, José‐Francisco Muñoz, Sebastián Vicuña, Sonia Reyes‐Paecke, Francisco de la Barrera, Flora Branger, Fabrice Rodríguez, Ximena Vargas, Nancy Hitschfeld, Santiago Hormazábal

Revista: Journal of the American Water Resources Association  (2019) https://doi.org/10.1111/1752-1688.12743

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Abstract

The impact of urbanization on groundwater is not simple to understand, as it depends on a variety of factors such as climate, hydrogeology, water management practices, and infrastructure. In semiarid landscapes, the urbanization processes can involve high water consumptions and irrigation increases, which in turn may contribute to groundwater recharge. We assessed the hydrological impacts of urbanization and irrigation rates in an Andean peri‐urban catchment located in Chile, in a semiarid climate.

Public Spaces as Climate Justice Places? Climate Quality in the City of Chillán, Chile

Año: 2019
Categoría: Cambio climático, Crecimiento urbano, Planificación urbana

Título publicación

Public Spaces as Climate Justice Places? Climate Quality in the City of Chillán, Chile

Autores: Pamela Smith, Cristián Henríquez

Revista: Public Spaces as Climate Justice Places? Climate Quality in the City of Chillán, Chile. Environmental Justice  (2013)

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Abstract

The transformations brought about by climate change and the continued growth of cities are having an impact on urban climate. In urban spaces, especially in public spaces, environmental conditions are becoming more uncomfortable and this is affecting the health and quality of life of city dwellers. This study of climate quality in the city of Chillán revealed that there are insufficient public spaces to provide acceptable environmental quality for the entire population.

From Multi-Risk Evaluation to Resilience Planning: The Case of Central Chilean Coastal Cities

Año: 2019
Categoría: Crecimiento urbano, Eventos extremos, Riesgos climáticos, Sistemas socio-ecológicos

Título publicación

From Multi-Risk Evaluation to Resilience Planning: The Case of Central Chilean Coastal Cities

Autores: Pilar Barría, María Luisa Cruzat, Rodrigo Cienfuegos, Jorge Gironás, Cristián Escauriaza, Carlos Bonilla, Roberto Moris, Cristian Ledezma, Maricarmen Guerra, Raimundo Rodrigez, Alma Torres

Revista: Water (2019), 11(3):572

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Abstract

Multi-hazard evaluations are fundamental inputs for disaster risk management plans and the implementation of resilient urban environments, adapted to extreme natural events. Risk assessments from natural hazards have been typically restricted to the analysis of single hazards or focused on the vulnerability of specific targets, which might result in an underestimation of the risk level.

Noticias

Francisco Meza, Académico y Fundador del Centro de Cambio Global UC se integra a la Academia Chilena de Ciencias Agronómicas

24-06-2019

La Academia Chilena de Ciencias Agronómicas (ACCA) incorporó este mes al investigador y docente de la Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal de la Universidad Católica Francisco Meza, por el...

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