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Irrigation of green spaces and residential gardens in a Mediterranean metropolis: Gaps and opportunities for climate change adaptation

Año: 2019
Categoría: Adaptación, Cuencas urbanas, Eficiencia Riego, Gestión adaptativa recursos hídricos, Planificación urbana

Título publicación

Irrigation of green spaces and residential gardens in a Mediterranean metropolis: Gaps and opportunities for climate change adaptation

Autores: Sonia Reyes-Paecke, Jorge Gironás, Oscar Melo, Sebastián Vicuña, Josefina Herrera

Revista: Landscape and Urban Planning (2019)182:34-43

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Abstract

Many cities are facing water shortages because of climate change. Climate adaptation plans have prioritized water saving to prevent the devastating consequences of drought. To develop such adaptation plans, it is critical to understand the water-use patterns of cities. The present research determines the water consumption for irrigation of green spaces and residential gardens in metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile (MAS) and compares this consumption with the expected vegetation water requirements estimated using a hydrological model.

Experiences of voluntary early participation in Environmental Impact Assessments in Chilean mining

Año: 2019
Categoría: Sistemas socio-ecológicos, Vulnerabilidad, Comunidades, Minería

Título publicación

Experiences of voluntary early participation in Environmental Impact Assessments in Chilean mining

Autores: Anahí Ocampo-Melgar, Lake Sagaris, Jorge Gironás

Revista: Environmental Impact Assessment Review (2019) 74:43-53

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Abstract

Citizen participation should ideally occur as early as possible in a project, especially throughout the course of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study. In Chile, participation occurs after the EIA study has been completed and presented to authorities for evaluation. However, voluntary early participation has become an extended practice in large mining projects for financial and conflict-reduction reasons. The purpose of this study was to explore a variety of these early participation processes happening in large mining projects from 2001 to 2010 and analyze how well these practices measured up to standards and objectives defined in the EIA and participation literature.

Unravelling transboundary water security in the arid Americas

Año: 2018
Categoría: Seguridad hídrica

Título publicación

Unravelling transboundary water security in the arid Americas

Autores: Albrecht, T. R., R. G. Varady, A. A. Zuniga-Teran, R. De Grenade, A. Lutz-Ley, F. Martín, S. B. Megdal, F. Meza, D. Ocampo Melgar, N. Pineda, F. Rojas, R. Taboada, B. Willems.

Revista: Water International (2018) 43(8) 1075-1113

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Abstract

Transboundary waters are characterized by diverse and complex socio-politico-economic obstacles to effective water management. We examine five distinct cases in the arid Americas – in locations from the US–Mexico border to the Andes mountains – employing water security as a conceptual prism to unravel the multiple and varied attributes of transboundary water challenges.

Drought propagation in semi-arid river basins in Latin America: Lessons from Mexico to the Southern Cone

Año: 2018
Categoría: Cuenca del Maipo, Seguridad hídrica, Sequía

Título publicación

Drought propagation in semi-arid river basins in Latin America: Lessons from Mexico to the Southern Cone

Autores: Oertel, M., Meza, F.J., Gironás, J., Scott, C; Rojas, F. Pineda, N.

Revista: Water (2018) 10 (11)

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Abstract

Detecting droughts as early as possible is important in avoiding negative impacts on economy, society, and environment. To improve drought monitoring, we studied drought propagation (i.e., the temporal manifestation of a precipitation deficit on soil moisture and streamflow). We used the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI), and Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSMI) in three drought-prone regions: Sonora (Mexico), Maipo (Chile), and Mendoza-Tunuyán (Argentina) to study their temporal interdependence.

Spatio-temporal estimation of climatic variables for gap filling and record extension using Reanalysis data

Año: 2018
Categoría: Ciencias atmosféricas, Clima, Modelación climática

Título publicación

Spatio-temporal estimation of climatic variables for gap filling and record extension using Reanalysis data

Autores: David Morales-Moraga, Francisco J. Meza, Jorge Gironás, Marcelo Miranda

Revista: Theoretical and Applied Climatology (2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-018-2653-8

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Abstract

The availability of reliable meteorological records is crucial for the development of a number of environmental studies. Unfortunately, these records are not always complete, usually show errors and/or have an insufficient length. This paper presents a gap filling and data record extension methodology for minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation.

Decomposition of 2D polygons and its effect in hydrological models

Año: 2018
Categoría: Hidrología, Modelación hidrológica

Título publicación

Decomposition of 2D polygons and its effect in hydrological models

Autores: P. Sanzana, J. Gironás, I. Braud, N. Hitschfeld, F. Branger, F. Rodriguez, M. Fuamba, J. Romero, X. Vargas, J. F. Muñoz, S. Vicuña, A. Mejía

Revista: Journal of Hydroinformatics (2018) - https://doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2018.031

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Abstract

2D non-uniform polygonal meshes allow representation of the impact of landscape elements and small infrastructures on water flows. The initial vectorial mesh, derived from the intersection of several geographical information systems' layers, can have highly non-convex or sliver polygons. These bad-shaped elements compromise accurate numerical flow computation. We propose a flexible divide-and-conquer strategy to decompose polygons into physiographical meaningful parts using shape descriptors to better represent the surface terrain and hydrologic connectivity.

Using a Statistical Preanalysis Approach as an Ensemble Technique for the Unbiased Mapping of GCM Changes to Local Stations

Año: 2018
Categoría: Cambio climático, Clima, Downscaling, Modelación, Modelación climática, Predicción Climática

Título publicación

Using a Statistical Preanalysis Approach as an Ensemble Technique for the Unbiased Mapping of GCM Changes to Local Stations

Autores: Cristián Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, Francisco Meza, James McPhee

Revista: Journal of Hydrometeorology (2018) 19: 1447–1465

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Abstract

Accounting for climate change, GCM-based projections and their uncertainty are relevant to study potential impacts on hydrological regimes as well as to analyze, operate, and design water infrastructure. Traditionally, several downscaled and/or bias-corrected GCM projections are individually or jointly used to map the raw GCMs’ changes to local stations and evaluate uncertainty. However, the preservation of GCMs’ statistical attributes is by no means guaranteed, and thus alternative methods to cope with this issue are needed.
 

Exclusion of small mammals and lagomorphs invasion interact with human-trampling to drive changes in topsoil microbial community structure and function in semiarid Chile

Año: 2018
Categoría: Servicios ecosistémicos, Sistemas socio-ecológicos, Medio Ambiente

Título publicación

Exclusion of small mammals and lagomorphs invasion interact with human-trampling to drive changes in topsoil microbial community structure and function in semiarid Chile

Autores: Alfaro, F. D., Manzano, M., Abades, S., Trefault, N., Iglesia, R. de la, Gaxiola, A., Marquet, P., Gutierrez, J., Meserve, P., Kelt, D., Belnap, J., Armesto, J. J.

Revista: Soil Biology and Biochemistry (2018), 124, 1–10

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Abstract

Species losses and additions can disrupt the relationship between resident species and the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Persistent human-trampling, on the other hand, can have similar effects through the disruption of biocrusts on surface soils of semiarid systems, affecting soil stability and fixation of carbon and nitrogen. Here, we tested the interactive and synergistic impacts of the exclusion of native mammalian herbivores and the effects of introduced lagomorphs in a semiarid thorn scrub ecosystem, where soils were subjected to two different trampling intensities (i.e., trampled and non-trampled). We postulated that because of their differential habitat use and fossorial activities, with respect to native small mammals, lagomorphs would have strong negative effects on soil structure, biocrust cover, and biocrust bacterial community structure.

Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model for Precipitation Forecasting in an Andean Region with Complex Topography

Año: 2018
Categoría: Modelación, Modelación climática, MODIS, Ocurrencia de precipitación complejas, Precipitaciones, Predicción Climática

Título publicación

Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model for Precipitation Forecasting in an Andean Region with Complex Topography

Autores: Gonzalo Yáñez-Morroni, Jorge Gironás, Marta Caneo, Rodrigo Delgado, René Garreaud

Revista: Atmosphere (2018), 9(8), 304

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Abstract

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been successfully used in weather prediction, but its ability to simulate precipitation over areas with complex topography is not optimal. Consequently, WRF has problems forecasting rainfall events over Chilean mountainous terrain and foothills, where some of the main cities are located, and where intense rainfall occurs due to cutoff lows.
 

Use of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing to investigate erosion of the non-convective zone in salt-gradient solar ponds

Año: 2018
Categoría: Estimación Temperatura, Modelación

Título publicación

Use of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing to investigate erosion of the non-convective zone in salt-gradient solar ponds

Autores: Sarabia, A., Meza, F., Suárez F.

Revista: Solar Energy (2018) 170: 499-509

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Abstract

Salt-gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) collect and store solar radiation as thermal energy. This thermal energy is stored in the pond’s bottom because of the existence of the non-convective zone (NCZ), a layer comprised by a salinity gradient that results in a stable density profile, which suppresses global convection within the pond. As a consequence, the NCZ is the most important layer of an SGSP that must be maintained to sustain the internal structure of the pond and to allow successful thermal energy storage.

Noticias

Bienvenidas! Nuevas académicas se integran a nuestro Consejo Académico

08-03-2019

Iniciando este año académico 2019, damos la bienvenida a cuatro destacadas académicas UC que se integran para formar parte de nuestro Consejo Académico. Se suman así (de izquierda a derecha...

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