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PROTECCIÓN COSTERO-MARINA EN LA PATAGONIA CHILENA: SITUACIÓN PRESENTE, AVANCES Y DESAFÍOS

Año: 2020
Categoría: Biodiversidad, Conservación, Mitigación

Título publicación

PROTECCIÓN COSTERO-MARINA EN LA PATAGONIA CHILENA: SITUACIÓN PRESENTE, AVANCES Y DESAFÍOS

Autores: J. C. Castilla, J. J. Armesto, M . J. Martínez-Harms

Libro: Conservación en la Patagonia chilena: evaluación del conocimiento, oportunidades y desafíos. (2021) 

Programa Austral Patagonia

Abstract

La Patagonia chilena representa hoy una oportunidad única a nivel nacional y mundial de generar un sistema integrado de protección costero-marina de gran valor para la conservación de la biodiversidad y para la sociedad. Con el objetivo de conocer los avances y desafíos en la materia, se describe la evolución, situación actual y las principales características geográficas de las figuras de protección costero-marina. Actualmente, la cobertura de Áreas Marinas Protegidas decretadas, excluyendo las que forman parte del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas del Estado (SNASPE), es de 11.218 km2 (6% de la zona costero-marina patagónica). 

UNA VISIÓN INTEGRADA DE CONSERVACIÓN PARA LA PATAGONIA CHILENA

Año: 2020
Categoría: Biodiversidad, Mitigación, Medio Ambiente

Título publicación

UNA VISIÓN INTEGRADA DE CONSERVACIÓN PARA LA PATAGONIA CHILENA

Autores: J. C. Castilla, J. J. Armesto, M . J. Martínez-Harms.

Libro: Conservación en la Patagonia chilena: evaluación del conocimiento, oportunidades y desafíos. (2021).

Programa Austral Patagonia

Abstract

Los grandes territorios y maritorios de la Patagonia chilena se destacan a nivel global por su alta proporción de áreas protegidas, cerca del 55% del área terrestre y, en términos legales, cerca de 41% de los espacios marinos, aunque parte del reconocimiento y gestión de estos últimos es aún incipiente. También son notables sus parajes remotos de islas y montañas, profusos en atractivos para la recreación y el turismo basado en la naturaleza, junto al alto endemismo de su biota. Los capítulos de este libro documentan los impactos más recientes de la influencia humana (e.g., cambio climático, introducción especies exóticas invasoras, crecimiento del turismo, expansión de la salmonicultura) sobre los ecosistemas patagónicos y resaltan la necesidad de proteger sus excepcionales valores para la conservación regional y mundial. Ante el creciente interés científico por la Patagonia chilena en las últimas décadas, este capítulo resume, a 

Understanding the preferences for different types of urban greywater uses and the impact of qualitative attributes

Año: 2020
Categoría: Cuencas urbanas, Recursos hídricos, Seguridad hídrica

Título publicación

Understanding the preferences for different types of urban greywater uses and the impact of qualitative attributes

Autores: Gloria Amaris, Richard Dawson, Jorge Gironás, Stephane Hess, Juan de Dios Ortúzar

Revista: Water Research 184 (2020) 116007; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061540

link a la publicación

Abstract

Greywater reuse can allow substantial improvements in the efficiency of potable water systems. However, widespread uptake of greywater reuse depends on its acceptability by the population. Previous studies have assessed the implementation costs of greywater reuse technology, and considered its acceptability in principle. Although cost is clearly very important in terms of adopting/installing the technology, the actual perception of greywater reuse is crucial in driving the acceptability of use and the long-term success of the technology. This study uses discrete choice models to quantify, for the first time, the preferences of different socio-economic groups for greywater of different quality (colour, odour) and for different uses inside homes.

Baseline of Carbon Stocks in Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp. Plantations of Chile

Año: 2020
Categoría: Cambio climático, Carbono, Política pública, Desarrollo Productivo

Título publicación

Baseline of Carbon Stocks in Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp. Plantations of Chile

Autores: Guillermo Olmedo, Mario Guevara, Horacio Gilabert, Cristián Montes, Eduardo Arellano, Beatriz Barría-Knopf, Francisco Gárate, Pablo Mena-Quijada, Eduardo Acuña, Horacio Bown, Michael Ryan.

Revista: Forests 2020, 11(10), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101063

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Abstract

Forest plantations have a large potential for carbon sequestration, playing an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, despite the large amount of research carried out worldwide, the absolute contribution of forest plantations is still incomplete for some parts of the world. To help bridge this gap, we calculated the amount of C stock in three fast growing forest species in Chile. Carbon pools in above-ground and below-ground biomass, forest floor, and soil were considered for this analysis. Across the plantation forests of Chile, carbon accumulated in the above-ground biomass was 181–212 Mg · ha−1 for Pinus radiata, 147–180 Mg · ha−1 for Eucalyptus nitens, and 95–117 Mg · ha−1 for Eucalyptus globulus (age 20–24 years for P. radiata and 10–14 years for Eucalyptus).

Assessing barriers and enablers in the institutionalization of river-basin adaptive management: evidence from the Maipo Basin, Chile

Año: 2020
Categoría: Adaptación, Cuenca del Maipo, Gestión adaptativa recursos hídricos, Recursos hídricos

Título publicación

Assessing barriers and enablers in the institutionalization of river-basin adaptive management: evidence from the Maipo Basin, Chile

Autores: Sebastián Vicuña, Christopher Scott, Sophia Borgias, Sebastián Bonelli, Eduardo Bustos

Revista: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2020, 44:93–103 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2020.09.003

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Abstract

Adaptation to global-change processes is conventionally based on assessment of human and environmental drivers and vulnerabilities. Institutionalizing adaptation involves interactive planning, implementation, and iterative evaluation of response measures and their outcomes, accompanied by adaptive-capacity enhancement. When applied in a river-basin context, adaptive management has to respond to hydroclimatic variability and uncertainty coupled with rapid growth in urban and agricultural water demands and often the deterioration of ecosystem services.

Genome-wide analyses reveal drivers of penguin diversification

Año: 2020
Categoría: Adaptación, Biodiversidad, Cambio global

Título publicación

Genome-wide analyses reveal drivers of penguin diversification

Autores: Juliana A. Vianna, Flávia A. N. Fernandes, María José Frugone, Henrique V. Figueiró, Luis R. Pertierra, Daly Noll, Ke Bi, Cynthia Y. Wang-Claypool, Andrew Lowther, Patricia Parker, Celine Le Bohec, Francesco Bonadonna, Barbara Wienecke, Pierre Pistorius, Antje Steinfurth, Christopher P. Burridge, Gisele P. M. Dantas, Elie Poulin, W. Brian Simison, Jim Henderson, Eduardo Eizirik, Mariana F. Nery, and Rauri C. K. Bowie

Revista: PNAS September 8, 2020 117 (36) 22303-22310 - https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006659117

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Abstract

Penguins are the only extant family of flightless diving birds. They currently comprise at least 18 species, distributed from polar to tropical environments in the Southern Hemisphere. The history of their diversification and adaptation to these diverse environments remains controversial. We used 22 new genomes from 18 penguin species to reconstruct the order, timing, and location of their diversification, to track changes in their thermal niches through time, and to test for associated adaptation across the genome. Our results indicate that the penguin crown-group originated during the Miocene in New Zealand and Australia, not in Antarctica as previously thought, and that Aptenodytes is the sister group to all other extant penguin species.

Construction and Metabolism of Cultural Landscapes for Sustainability in the Anthropocene

Año: 2020
Categoría: Antopoceno, Sistemas socio-ecológicos, Medio Ambiente

Título publicación

Construction and Metabolism of Cultural Landscapes for Sustainability in the Anthropocene

Autores: Diego Subercaseaux, Juan Gastó, José Tomás Ibarra, Eduardo Arellano.

Revista: Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6301; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166301

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Abstract

In the Anthropocene, humans have become the dominant force behind the transformation of the planet and its cultural landscapes. In recent decades, there has been a paradigm shift in the sciences, changing the focus from the study of separate components to the study of wholes. In light of this, several fields of study have attempted to address the dichotomous paradigm of nature versus society by developing integrative concepts, such as ‘social metabolism’, to explain the inextricable interrelations between nature and society for building a sustainable future. In this paper, we examine the metabolism of cultural landscapes, considering the actions of social actors in their territories.

Daily and seasonal variation of the surface temperature lapse rate and 0°C isotherm height in the western subtropical Andes

Año: 2020
Categoría: Clima, Hidrología, Modelación climática, Modelación hidrológica, Predicción Climática

Título publicación

Daily and seasonal variation of the surface temperature lapse rate and 0°C isotherm height in the western subtropical Andes

Autores: María Ibañez, Jorge Gironás, Christian Oberli, Cristián Chadwick, René Garreaud

Revista: International Journal of Climatology (2020): 1-20 - https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6743

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Abstract

The spatial distribution of surface air temperatures is essential for understanding and modelling high‐relief environments. Good estimations of the surface temperature lapse rate (STLR) and the 0°C isotherm height (H0) are fundamental for hydrological modelling in mountainous basins. Although STLR changes in space and time, it is typically assumed to be constant leading to errors in the estimation of direct‐runoff volumes and flash‐floods risk assessment. This paper characterizes daily and seasonal temporal variations of the in‐situ STLR and H0 over the western slope of the subtropical Andes (central Chile).

Compensating Water Service Interruptions to Implement a Safe-To-Fail Approach to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Water Supply

Año: 2020
Categoría: Adaptación, Cambio climático, Cuenca del Maipo, Cuencas urbanas, Recursos hídricos, Seguridad hídrica

Título publicación

Compensating Water Service Interruptions to Implement a Safe-To-Fail Approach to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Water Supply

Autores: Rafael Undurraga, Sebastián Vicuña, Oscar Melo

Revista: Water 2020, 12(6), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061540

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Abstract

A city resilient to climate change is characterized by effectively responding to and recovering from the negative impacts of climate hazards. In the city of Santiago, Chile, extreme weather that can be associated with a nascent manifestation of climate change has caused high-turbidity events, repeatedly forcing the main water company to interrupt the supply of drinking water, affecting millions of people. This study proposes a transformative response to reduce harm from extreme events due to climate change.

Rebuilding marine life

Año: 2020
Categoría: Biodiversidad, Conservación, Océanos

Título publicación

Rebuilding marine life

Autores: Carlos M. Duarte, Susana Agusti, Edward Barbier, Gregory L. Britten, Juan Carlos Castilla, Juan-Pierre Gattuso, Robinson W. Fulweiler. Terry P. Hughes, Nancy Knowlton, Catherine E. Lovelock, Heike K. Ltze, Milica Predragovic, Elvira Poloczanska, Callum Roberts & Boris Worn.

Revista: Nature 580, 39-51 (2020)

link a la publicación

Abstract

Sustainable Development Goal 14 of the United Nations aims to “conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”. Achieving this goal will require rebuilding the marine life-support systems that deliver the many benefits that society receives from a healthy ocean.

Noticias

ARClim: nueva plataforma que desarrolla mapas de riesgo climático para la toma de decisiones

15-12-2020

El Atlas de Riesgo Climático es una nueva herramienta que muestra el riesgo frente al cambio climático de acuerdo a las proyecciones climáticas futuras. Tiene el objetivo de entregar información...

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