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Understanding the preferences for different types of urban greywater uses and the impact of qualitative attributes

Año: 2020
Categoría: Cuencas urbanas, Recursos hídricos, Seguridad hídrica

Título publicación

Understanding the preferences for different types of urban greywater uses and the impact of qualitative attributes

Autores: Gloria Amaris, Richard Dawson, Jorge Gironás, Stephane Hess, Juan de Dios Ortúzar

Revista: Water Research 184 (2020) 116007; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061540

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Abstract

Greywater reuse can allow substantial improvements in the efficiency of potable water systems. However, widespread uptake of greywater reuse depends on its acceptability by the population. Previous studies have assessed the implementation costs of greywater reuse technology, and considered its acceptability in principle. Although cost is clearly very important in terms of adopting/installing the technology, the actual perception of greywater reuse is crucial in driving the acceptability of use and the long-term success of the technology. This study uses discrete choice models to quantify, for the first time, the preferences of different socio-economic groups for greywater of different quality (colour, odour) and for different uses inside homes.

Baseline of Carbon Stocks in Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp. Plantations of Chile

Año: 2020
Categoría: Cambio climático, Carbono, Política pública, Desarrollo Productivo

Título publicación

Baseline of Carbon Stocks in Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp. Plantations of Chile

Autores: Guillermo Olmedo, Mario Guevara, Horacio Gilabert, Cristián Montes, Eduardo Arellano, Beatriz Barría-Knopf, Francisco Gárate, Pablo Mena-Quijada, Eduardo Acuña, Horacio Bown, Michael Ryan.

Revista: Forests 2020, 11(10), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101063

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Abstract

Forest plantations have a large potential for carbon sequestration, playing an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, despite the large amount of research carried out worldwide, the absolute contribution of forest plantations is still incomplete for some parts of the world. To help bridge this gap, we calculated the amount of C stock in three fast growing forest species in Chile. Carbon pools in above-ground and below-ground biomass, forest floor, and soil were considered for this analysis. Across the plantation forests of Chile, carbon accumulated in the above-ground biomass was 181–212 Mg · ha−1 for Pinus radiata, 147–180 Mg · ha−1 for Eucalyptus nitens, and 95–117 Mg · ha−1 for Eucalyptus globulus (age 20–24 years for P. radiata and 10–14 years for Eucalyptus).

Genome-wide analyses reveal drivers of penguin diversification

Año: 2020
Categoría: Adaptación, Biodiversidad, Cambio global

Título publicación

Genome-wide analyses reveal drivers of penguin diversification

Autores: Juliana A. Vianna, Flávia A. N. Fernandes, María José Frugone, Henrique V. Figueiró, Luis R. Pertierra, Daly Noll, Ke Bi, Cynthia Y. Wang-Claypool, Andrew Lowther, Patricia Parker, Celine Le Bohec, Francesco Bonadonna, Barbara Wienecke, Pierre Pistorius, Antje Steinfurth, Christopher P. Burridge, Gisele P. M. Dantas, Elie Poulin, W. Brian Simison, Jim Henderson, Eduardo Eizirik, Mariana F. Nery, and Rauri C. K. Bowie

Revista: PNAS September 8, 2020 117 (36) 22303-22310 - https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006659117

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Abstract

Penguins are the only extant family of flightless diving birds. They currently comprise at least 18 species, distributed from polar to tropical environments in the Southern Hemisphere. The history of their diversification and adaptation to these diverse environments remains controversial. We used 22 new genomes from 18 penguin species to reconstruct the order, timing, and location of their diversification, to track changes in their thermal niches through time, and to test for associated adaptation across the genome. Our results indicate that the penguin crown-group originated during the Miocene in New Zealand and Australia, not in Antarctica as previously thought, and that Aptenodytes is the sister group to all other extant penguin species.

Construction and Metabolism of Cultural Landscapes for Sustainability in the Anthropocene

Año: 2020
Categoría: Antopoceno, Sistemas socio-ecológicos, Medio Ambiente

Título publicación

Construction and Metabolism of Cultural Landscapes for Sustainability in the Anthropocene

Autores: Diego Subercaseaux, Juan Gastó, José Tomás Ibarra, Eduardo Arellano.

Revista: Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6301; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166301

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Abstract

In the Anthropocene, humans have become the dominant force behind the transformation of the planet and its cultural landscapes. In recent decades, there has been a paradigm shift in the sciences, changing the focus from the study of separate components to the study of wholes. In light of this, several fields of study have attempted to address the dichotomous paradigm of nature versus society by developing integrative concepts, such as ‘social metabolism’, to explain the inextricable interrelations between nature and society for building a sustainable future. In this paper, we examine the metabolism of cultural landscapes, considering the actions of social actors in their territories.

Daily and seasonal variation of the surface temperature lapse rate and 0°C isotherm height in the western subtropical Andes

Año: 2020
Categoría: Clima, Hidrología, Modelación climática, Modelación hidrológica, Predicción Climática

Título publicación

Daily and seasonal variation of the surface temperature lapse rate and 0°C isotherm height in the western subtropical Andes

Autores: María Ibañez, Jorge Gironás, Christian Oberli, Cristián Chadwick, René Garreaud

Revista: International Journal of Climatology (2020): 1-20 - https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6743

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Abstract

The spatial distribution of surface air temperatures is essential for understanding and modelling high‐relief environments. Good estimations of the surface temperature lapse rate (STLR) and the 0°C isotherm height (H0) are fundamental for hydrological modelling in mountainous basins. Although STLR changes in space and time, it is typically assumed to be constant leading to errors in the estimation of direct‐runoff volumes and flash‐floods risk assessment. This paper characterizes daily and seasonal temporal variations of the in‐situ STLR and H0 over the western slope of the subtropical Andes (central Chile).

Compensating Water Service Interruptions to Implement a Safe-To-Fail Approach to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Water Supply

Año: 2020
Categoría: Adaptación, Cambio climático, Cuenca del Maipo, Cuencas urbanas, Recursos hídricos, Seguridad hídrica

Título publicación

Compensating Water Service Interruptions to Implement a Safe-To-Fail Approach to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Water Supply

Autores: Rafael Undurraga, Sebastián Vicuña, Oscar Melo

Revista: Water 2020, 12(6), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061540

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Abstract

A city resilient to climate change is characterized by effectively responding to and recovering from the negative impacts of climate hazards. In the city of Santiago, Chile, extreme weather that can be associated with a nascent manifestation of climate change has caused high-turbidity events, repeatedly forcing the main water company to interrupt the supply of drinking water, affecting millions of people. This study proposes a transformative response to reduce harm from extreme events due to climate change.

Rebuilding marine life

Año: 2020
Categoría: Biodiversidad, Conservación, Océanos

Título publicación

Rebuilding marine life

Autores: Carlos M. Duarte, Susana Agusti, Edward Barbier, Gregory L. Britten, Juan Carlos Castilla, Juan-Pierre Gattuso, Robinson W. Fulweiler. Terry P. Hughes, Nancy Knowlton, Catherine E. Lovelock, Heike K. Ltze, Milica Predragovic, Elvira Poloczanska, Callum Roberts & Boris Worn.

Revista: Nature 580, 39-51 (2020)

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Abstract

Sustainable Development Goal 14 of the United Nations aims to “conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”. Achieving this goal will require rebuilding the marine life-support systems that deliver the many benefits that society receives from a healthy ocean.

A stress test for climate change impacts on water security: A CRIDA case study

Año: 2020
Categoría: Cambio climático, Gestión adaptativa recursos hídricos, Recursos hídricos

Título publicación

A stress test for climate change impacts on water security: A CRIDA case study

Autores: K.M.J. Verbist, H. Maureira-Cortés, P. Rojas, S. Vicuña

Revista: Climate Risk Management (28) 2020, 100222

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Abstract

Since the impacts of climate change will be felt most directly through changes in water availability and water security, adequate tools are required to support water resources management decisions for the medium and long term. The Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) provides a pathway for more localized vulnerability assessments of water resources under climate change, while encompassing the uncertainty of current global climate projections.

Water at COP25: Resilience enables climate change adaptation through better planning, governance and finance

Año: 2020
Categoría: Adaptación, Cambio climático, Recursos hídricos

Título publicación

Water at COP25: Resilience enables climate change adaptation through better planning, governance and finance

Autores: Julien J. Harou John H. Matthews D. Mark Smith Rachael A. McDonnell Edoardo Borgomeo Jennifer J. Sara Judith Plummer Braeckman Nathanial Matthews James Dalton Mike D. Young Henk W. J. Ovink Musonda Mumba Martin Shouler Sanna Markkanen y Sebastian Vicuña

Revista: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Water Management 173(2): 55–58

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Abstract

The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992 and governments have participated since then in its decision-making body, the ‘Conference of the Parties' (COP). Chile presided over the 25th annual COP held December 2019 in Madrid, Spain. While COPs necessarily emphasise energy negotiations and carbon mitigation policies, water is an increasingly prominent topic because of the need for water in energy production and its importance in nature-based and engineered adaptation and mitigation solutions. Climate-change-induced water impacts are key considerations in, for example, infrastructure planning under changing flood and drought risk, changing agricultural practices and hydropower. Already ninety percent of all-natural disasters are water related.

Impacts of Channel Network Type on the Unit Hydrograph

Año: 2020
Categoría: Hidrología, Modelación hidrológica

Título publicación

Impacts of Channel Network Type on the Unit Hydrograph

Autores: Kalsey Czyzyk, Dario Mirossi, Almoatasem Abdoulhak, Sediqa Hassani, Jeffrey Niemann, Jorge Gironás

Revista: Water 2020, 12(3), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030669

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Abstract

Unit hydrographs (UHs) remain widely used in hydrologic modeling to predict the stormflow that is produced at a basin outlet in response to runoff generated throughout the basin. Numerous studies have demonstrated that a basin’s UH depends on its geomorphic properties, and several methods estimate synthetic UHs using such properties. However, previous studies have not examined whether the channel network type (such as dendritic, parallel, pinnate, rectangular, and trellis) impacts the UH shape. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether those five network types exhibit distinct UHs, and (2) whether knowledge of the network type is sufficient to replace the actual flow path structure in UH estimation.

Noticias

Presentan Reporte que mide cumplimiento de promesas en materia ambiental 2018-2020

03-08-2020

De acuerdo al reporte de GAMA UC, de los 90 compromisos de gobierno en materia ambiental existentes hasta el 30 de Julio de 2020, 27 se consideran cumplidos, 46 en...

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